General Knowledge

This page contains links of topics of general interest. The page is divided into following parts

Links of few important topics are given below

NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India)
The Government has replaced Planning Commission with a new institution named NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India). The institution will serve as ‘Think Tank’ of the Government-a directional and policy dynamo.

Right to Legal Aid
Right to free legal aid or free legal service is an essential fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution. It forms the basis of reasonable, fair and just liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution of India, which says, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”.

Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)
The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) is a government body that offers a single window clearance for proposals on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India that are not allowed access through the automatic route.

Land Revenue System in British India
Zamindari System also known as Permanent Settlement System.was introduced in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act.

INS Vikramaditya
INS Vikramaditya(formerly Admiral Gorshkov) is the newest and largest ship, a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier ,purchased from Russia.joined Indian Navy on 16 Nov 2013. Prime Minister of India formally inducted INS Vikramaditya into the Indian Navy and dedicated it to the Nation on 14th june 2014.

Washington Accord
Washington Accord is an international agreement amongst prominent nations of the World, with the charter of promoting mobility and quality assurance of engineers across international boundaries. The charter requires that nations set up suitable accreditation standards, which would ensure a minimum quality of attainment for their engineering graduates.

Clean Technology Fund
The Clean Technology Fund (CTF),One of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) ,provides middle income countries with highly concessional resources to explore options to scale up the demonstration, deployment, and transfer of low carbon technologies in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable transport.World Bank is trustee of this fund.

K4 Missile
K-4 is an intermediate-range nuclear-capable submarine-launched ballistic missile developed indigenously by DRDO of India to arm the Arihant class submarine(India's first indigenously developed nuclear submarine)and will complement K-15 Sagarika. The missile has an effective range of 3500 km.Recently India test fired K4 successfully.

Article 370 which is in news now a days provides special autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It restricts the power of Indian Parliament to make laws for people who reside in J&K as this article specifies that except for Defence, Foreign Affairs, Communications and ancillary matters (matters specified in the instrument of accession) the Indian Parliament needs the State Government's concurrence for applying all other laws.

3D Printing
3D printing which is also known as Additive manufacturing or Stereo lithography is a process of making a three dimensional solid object of almost any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is also considered distinct from traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling (subtractive processes).

Thorium Based Reactors
Thorium plays a pivotal role in Indian Nuclear power programme. Right from the inception of Indian nuclear power programme, work has been carried out on various aspects of thorium utilisation-mining and extraction of thorium, fuel fabrication, irradiation in reactors, reprocessing and refabrication. In addition, studies have been carried out regarding use of thorium in different types of reactors.

Importance of Micro Irrigation
With the growing concern for conservation of water resources , the need of smart irrigation felt by people. In this direction concept of Micro Irrigation also known as Drip Irrigation or trickle irrigation or localized irrigation have gained importance recently.

Environment Protection and Indian Constitution
The constitution of India is not an inert but a living document which evolves and grows with time. The specific provisions on environment protection in the constitution are also result of this evolving nature and growth potential of the fundamental law of the land. The preamble to our constitution ensures socialist pattern of the society and dignity of the individual.

Conservation Of Biodiversity
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity have been an integral part of Indian ethos. The varied eco-climatic conditions coupled with unique geological and cultural features have contributed to an astounding diversity of habitats, which harbor and sustain immense biological diversity at all levels.

Heritage Conservation: Role of Scientific Methodology
It is said that “A people's relationship to their heritage is the same as the relationship of a child to its mother”. Our heritage is our pride and we all have some responsibility to save and preserve it for our future generation. The Constitution of India under Article under 51A (f) imposes duty on every citizen of India to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

Sea Erosion
The landward displacement of the shoreline caused by the forces of waves and current is termed as sea erosion. The main causes of the sea erosion include both natural causes like action of winds waves, tides, storms etc. and anthropogenic activities including construction of artificial structures, mining of beach sand, offshore dredging, or building of dams or rivers.

Radioacive Emissions from a Nuclear meltdown
Various radioactive substances that can be emitted because of a nuclear meltdown , their properties and side effects are as as listed below.

On November 24, 1961, as a consequence of the first French nuclear test in the dessert of Western Sahara, in the territory of today’s Algeria, the General Assembly appealed the United Nations Member States to stop these tests carried out in the densely populated territories of North Africa.

In view of the limited fossil fuel availability with the country, the relevance of Nuclear Power in meeting the short and long term needs of our energy was recognised right at the initial stage. 

Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed in 1987 by 24 countries. Later Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol was created , thus Montreal protocol became the first of the multilateral environmental agreements to establish a financial mechanism for implementation.

WiMAX Technology is one of the emerging wireless technology that provide us high speed mobile data and telecommunication services. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and it is based on IEEE 802.16 standards.

In physics, spectrum refers to a range of frequencies at which electromagnetic waves can be transmitted. Such waves—radio waves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, microwaves and visible light—abound in nature and travel at various frequencies. 

A series of frequently occurring earthquakes made it important for us to know how to reaponse when caught in midst of earthquake .Unlike other calamity earthquake comes without any warning , When ever earthquake comes , one should immediately take following steps(whichever is possible).

What to do when Fire breaks out
Fire can break out anywhere anytime without giving any warning or intimation particularly in the season of summer. As an informed and responsible citizen we should have basic knowledge about how to respond to this disaster.

Main functions of RBI has been listed under this article comprehensively.

Cash based and Accrual based accounting system
The difference between the two types of accounting is when revenues and expenses are recorded. In cash basis accounting, revenues are recorded when cash is actually received and expenses are recorded when they are actually paid (no matter when they were actually invoiced).

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was established by the Government of India in 1988 through an executive resolution, and later upgraded as a fully autonomous body (a statutory Board) in the year 1992 with the passing of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act (SEBI Act) on 30th January 1992.

The main functions of the Directorate are as under
1To enforce Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 and Prevention of money Laundering Act 2002.

OFCD is a type of debt security where the option is given to the holder if he wants to convert his debenture into equity share after stipulated time

Central Vigilance Commission
The Central Vigilance Commission was set up in 1964 on the recommendation of Santanam Committee. The CVC was a one man Commission for about three and a half decades for exercising general superintendence over vigilance administration in the Government.

Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO)
The SFIO is a multi-disciplinary organization under Ministry of Corporate Affairs, consisting of experts in the field of accountancy, forensic auditing, law, information technology, investigation, company law, capital market and taxation for detecting and prosecuting or recommending for prosecution white-collar crimes/frauds.

Financial Stability and Development Council
The Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister and its members are Governor, Reserve Bank of India; Finance Secretary and/or Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs; Secretary, Department of Financial Services; Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance; Chairman, Securities and Exchange Board of India; Chairman, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority and Chairman, Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority.

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