Skip to main content


Showing posts from June, 2014

New liberal Visa policy for Afghan nationals

The Government is introducing a new liberal visa policy for Afghan nationals to stay in India on humanitarian grounds for two years w.e.f. July 01, 2014. The new policy further streamlines procedures being implemented in the current visa policy for citizens of Afghanistan. The broad elements of the policy are:- Government may allow Afghan nationals to stay in India on stay visa/resident permit upto two years at a time.  Exemption from police reporting will be granted for Afghan nationals, upto the age of 12 years or those above 65 years of age. There would be liberal provisions in relation to exemption from the requirement of police reporting under various categories, including for Afghan students, medical patients, short-term visitors, businessmen, scholars, eminent persons etc.  The amenities at Foreigner Regional Registration Office (FRRO), Delhi have been upgraded for the Afghan nationals visiting FRRO office. A system of biometric enrolment and photography would be introdu

Importance of PANCHSHEEL

Below is the excerpts from the speech of Vice president AT COMMEMORATION OF 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF FIVE PRINCIPLES OF PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE IN GREAT HALL OF PEOPLE, BEIJING, CHINA . It is useful in understanding the usefulness of concept of panchsheel in modern era. Pursuit of world peace is a fundamental tenet of India’s foreign policy. It draws inspiration from our ancient civilisational value of considering the world as one family. This shapes and guides our actions in international relations. Even before India became an independent nation, the leaders of our freedom struggle had outlined the fundamental precepts and values that embody the Five Principles of Peaceful Existence or Panchsheel. The Constitution of India enjoins the State to endeavour to promote international peace and security and to maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Speaking in our Parliament the then Prime Minister Nehru had referred to Lord Buddha’s use of Panchsheel as a moral concept and had we

Third BIMSTEC Summit Declaration

Third Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) summit held on 4th march 2014 in Nay Pyi Taw , Myanmaar. The first two summit held in Bangkok(2004) and New Delhi (2008). The Prime Minister of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Bhutan, the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, the President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the Prime Minister of Nepal, the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and the Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Thailand participated in the Third BIMSTEC Summit Meeting. The salient features of the summit are as follows : Member countries Resolved to commit increased efforts in accomplishing the founding aims and purposes of BIMSTEC. It has been decided to move forward towards finalization of the draft Agreement on Trade in Goods with agreed General Rules of Origin and Product Specific Rules, and also to signing of the Agreeme

PSLV - C 23

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is looking forward to the lift-off of its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C 23 from Sriharikota at 9-48 am on the coming Monday, the 30th June 2014. PSLV in its 27th flight will launch SPOT-7 a French earth observation satellite into a 655 km Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). PSLV will be launched from the first launch pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre. This will be the 10th flight of PSLV without the use of solid strap-on motors. SPOT-7 is a French optical earth observation satellite. (This is identical to SPOT-6 launched earlier on-board PSLV-21 during September 2012). SPOT-7, after its injection into Sun Synchronous Orbit, will be phased and placed diametrically opposite to SPOT-6 and will form part of the existing earth observation constellation. SPOT-7 satellite is built by Airbus Defence & Space, a leading European space technology company. After more than 17 minutes of flight, the PSLV C23 will put SPOT-7 in the designated

Appointment Procedure of Supreme Court Judge

Recently gopal subramanium opted out from being appointed as supreme court judge after his name returned back to collegium for reconsideration invoking a controversy. In this light let us study in detail about procedure of appointment of judges. Qualification for being appointed as Supreme Court Judge: As per article 124(3) of the Constitution, In order to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court, a person must be a citizen of India and must have been, for at-least five years, a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession, or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession for at least 10 years or he must be, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist. Provisions also exist for the appointment of a Judge of a High Court as an Ad-hoc Judge of the Supreme Court and for retired Judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts to sit and act as Judges of that Court. Procedure of Appointing Supreme Court Judge : Articl

Star Alliance Network

The Star Alliance network is the leading global airline network, with the highest number of member airlines, daily flights, destinations and countries flown to. It was established in 1997 as the first truly global airline alliance to offer customers convenient worldwide reach and a smoother travel experience. Star Alliance member airlines fly to more destinations than any other airline alliance in the world – which means easier travel and quicker connections. Membership of Air India into Star Alliance Network has been approved and Air India will join on 11 July 2014. As a Star Alliance member, Air India will now offer its passengers seamless travel experience across the Alliance network around the world, besides a premium customer recognition and benefits across member airlines. In addition to enjoying seamless transfers while travelling across the world, Air India passengers can earn and burn more frequent flyer mileage points, code sharing leading to a wider choice of flights and an

Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area Inscribed as World Heritage Site

The World Heritage Committee has inscribed the Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (GHNPCA), India, on the World Heritage List on the basis of criterion (x) of UNESCO Guidelines. The Criterion X is “To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.” The Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) is located in the Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India. The concept of environmental conservation in the Kullu Valley is very ancient. The names of many places in this valley commemorate saints who came here to meditate in the great sanctuary of Himalayas. Some of these sanctuaries are still preserved as sacred groves of trees. The Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (GHNPCA) has GHNP (754.4 sq km), Sainj (90 sq km) and Tirthan (61 sq km) Wildlife Sanctuaries. The 905.40 sq km GHNPC

India Ratifies IAEA Additional Protocol

India on 14th June, 2014 ratified additional protocol with IAEA which is supposed to enhance transparency of Indian nuclear infrastructure. The additional protocol will cover only those facilities which are already monitored by IAEA, and will not cover the non-safeguarded facilities which are used for building weapons. This protocol is meant to ensure that India's civil nuclear facility is not being misused for diverting materials to make weapons. It will fecilitate easier inspections by the global nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency or IAEA. India will now also inform the watchdog about its nuclear exports. The new arrangement would facilitate regular entry and exit of the IAEA personnel by providing them with multi-entry visas apart from guaranteeing "free communication" generated by the surveillance or measurement devices of the IAEA that are already in place in in facilities that are under international safeguards . Due to this enhanced t

Rani Ki Vav on World Heritage List

Rani –ki –Vav situated at ,Patathe jarat    has been approved for inscription on the World Heritage list. The recognition was granted by the UNESCO at the World Heritage Committee Session currently on at Doha, Qatar. UNESCO has recognized this masterpiece as an exceptional example of technological development in utilizing ground water resources in a single component, water management system and it illustrates the exceptional capacity to break large spaces into smaller volumes following ideal aesthetic proportions. Rani-ki-Vav , a stepwell built in the 11th century is the most developed, elaborate and ornate example of a unique type of Indian subterranean architectural structure, and it marks the zenith in the evolution of stepwells in India. It is a particularly large and complex example of a stepwell, with seven storeys of ornamented panels of sculptures and relief representing the height of the Maru-Gurjara style. Following the flooding and disappearance of the Saraswati River due

Healthy Food Habbits: Ways and means of limiting the Trans Fat intake

Presently, India is facing the dual burden of disease – while large majority of the people are suffering from chronic energy deficiency (due to poor quantity and quality of food intake); a sizeable population on the other hand is also suffering from the diet-related chronic degenerative/lifestyle related diseases. The risk factors associated with these diseases include unhealthy dietary practices, physical inactivity, overweight/obesity, smoking/drinking, drug abuse and psychological stress. Among the diet related factors, apart from the total energy intake, quantity and quality of the dietary fat play an important role. Trans fats or Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are the most harmful type of fats which can pose many adverse effects on our body. Major TFAs include elaidic acid (9 trans C18:1) primarily found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and vaccenic acid (11 trans C18:1), found in meat/ dairy products. TFAs are also present as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2). However, in

Project ‘Mausam’

Secretary, Ministry of Culture Shri Ravindra Singh on 20th June, 2014 presented ‘Mausam’, a Ministry of Culture project to an international audience at the 38th session of the World Heritage Committee at Doha, Qatar. One of the main deliverable of this project is nomination of maritime cultural landscapes across the Indian Ocean as a trans-national property on the World Heritage List of UNESCO. Project ‘Mausam’ is a Ministry of Culture project with Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi as the nodal coordinating agency. As an initial idea, the project was proposed by Mr. Ravindra Singh, Secretary, Ministry of Culture and now has been taken up as a prelude to its nomination as a transnational inscription on the World Heritage List of UNESCO. ‘Mausam’ or Arabic ‘Mawsim’ refers to the season when ships could sail safely. This distinctive wind-system of the Indian Ocean region follows a regular pattern: southwest from May to September; and northeast from November to

Land Revenue System in British India

Land Revenue system in British can be divided into following three major categories : Zamindari System Zamindari System also known as Permanent Settlement System.was introduced  in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act. In this system ownership rights of land was totally with Zamindars and Zamindars was given right to collect rent from peasants who work on that land.The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11 of the share belongs to Zamindars and 10/11 of the share belongs to East India Company. Ryotwari System Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 in areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India. In this System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants and British Government used to collect taxes directly from the peasants.The revenue rates of Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigate

World Food Prize

India-born plant scientist Sanjaya Rajaram has been named the winner of the USD 250,000 World Food Prize for his contribution in increasing global wheat production by more than 200 million tonnes in the years following the Green Revolution. Conceived by Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug, The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity, or availability of food in the world.It is given contributions in any field involved in the world food supply: food and agriculture science and technology, manufacturing, marketing, nutrition, economics, poverty alleviation, political leadership, and the social sciences

Atheism : why should we follow it

The world of spirituality is seeing a huge change. More and more people are giving serious thought about spirituality than ever before. With plenty of options available, they want to keep balance between their material and spiritual life. Secondly, instead of adopting the family religion, they are using their right to pick and choose. Yet others are abandoning religion to choose atheism, or the belief that there is no God. Atheism is getting more and more followers because religion doesn't seem to have all the answers In fact it seems to be one big source of problems for people who are looking for reasonable and logical answers. Religion needs to go away and not be replaced by anything. Atheism is not a religion. It’s the absence of religion, and that’s a wonderful thing. Religion is not morality. 'if there’s no god, what would stop people from doing crimes like raping and killing everyone they want to?' My simple answer to this question is : 'Behaving morally because o


Climate change finance unit is an unit working under ministry of finance with following objectives and responsibilities : To serve as the nodal point on all climate change financing matters in the Finance Ministry. To represent Ministry of Finance in all climate change financing related issues in all international and domestic fora. To prepare briefs and position papers for Government of India's position on climate change financing To provide guidance and inputs to MoEF to feed into climate change negotiations as well as to develop capacity to analyze emerging issues Assess the submissions on 'climate change financing' from various national Governments who are Parties to the UN framework Convention on Climate Change Analyze the financial pledges of developed countries Provide inputs to the designing of Green Climate Fund as per the Cancun agreement.

PM's Bhutan Visit

At the invitation of His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, the King of Bhutan, Prime Minister of the Republic of India Shri Narendra Modi paid a State Visit to Bhutan from 15-16 June 2014. The Prime Minister of India was accompanied by External Affairs Minister Smt. Sushma Swaraj, National Security Adviser Shri Ajit Doval, Foreign Secretary Smt. Sujatha Singh and other senior officials of the Government of India. The visit to Bhutan by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi is highly significant as it is his first visit abroad after he was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of India . The visit reinforces the tradition of regular high-level exchanges between the two countries and upholds and strengthens the special and unique age-old friendship between Bhutan and India. Following are the salient points of the visit : The two sides exchanged views and held discussions on bilateral relations and economic cooperation as well as cooperation in regional and multilateral forums. They reca

Infrastructure Debt Funds

Infrastructure Debt Funds are investment vehicles which can be sponsored by commercial banks and NBFCs in India in which domestic/offshore institutional investors, specially insurance and pension funds can invest through units and bonds issued by the IDFs. IDFs would essentially act as vehicles for refinancing existing debt of infrastructure companies, thereby creating fresh headroom for banks to lend to fresh infrastructure projects. Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDFs), can be set up either as a Trust or as a Company. A trust based IDF would normally be a Mutual Fund (MF), regulated by SEBI, while a company based IDF would normally be a NBFC regulated by the Reserve Bank. IDF-MFs can be sponsored by banks and NBFCs while on the other hand Only banks and Infrastructure Finance companies can sponsor IDF-NBFCs. India needs investment of USD 1 trillion in new infrastructure between 2012-17. Approximately half of this is to come through private funding. In this direction IDFs can be han

Project Seabird

Project Seabird (Karwar naval base in Karnataka) is a program to establish a new Naval Base, the INS Kadamba which will be one of the largest naval bases of India and will be completed in two phases. It will house various warships including India's largest warship and aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya. This naval base will not only ease pressure of Mumbai abut also will provide better topography for navy ships due to its natural deep water harbor. Further in case of any hostility from Pakistan , this base will enable India to respond quickly. The first phase of the project got completed in 2005 and the base was commissioned on 31st may 2005 . The second phase commenced in 2011 for. Recently in June 2014 , phase II-A and II-B got environment clearance . At present INS Kadamba is third largest naval base of India  and is expected to become largest naval base in eastern hemisphere after completion of phase  II-B 

INS Vikramaditya

INS Vikramaditya(formerly Admiral Gorshkov) is the newest and largest ship, a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier ,purchased from Russia.joined Indian Navy on 16 Nov 2013. Prime Minister of India formally inducted INS Vikramaditya into the Indian Navy and dedicated it to the Nation on 14th june 2014. The aircraft carrier has a overall length of 284 m and 273m flight deck which makes it able to carry up to 20 MiG-29 fighters and up to eight Kamov Ka-28/Ka-31 helicopters. It can carry over 1,600 personnel on board.And with full logistics,the vessel is capable of sustaining at sea for about 45 days. Eventually, INS Vikramaditya will carry HAL Tejas trainer aircraft, Dhruv light helicopters, Kinzhal air defense missiles and Kashtan air defense gun or missile systems. This along with INS Viraat makes India only country in Asia to have two aircraft carrier vessels

A Typical hostel day during Exams

Its 1:00 PM and we all are back to the hostel after giving a paper and following day have to give another paper . So all in all we have less than 24 hours to prepare.  But since I have just now given one exam so while having my lunch am in relaxing mode. Suddenly heard voice of one friend named Shashi says Fakka Pakka , Fakka Pakka (I will fail , i will fail ) . Other friends Parimal etc also joins in .... yes yes fakka pakka (i will also fail) followed by many others including me. Any outsider who will see the scene will feel that all these people will fail this exam . But as you know reality is quite opposite ;). Since I have not slept last night due to today's paper, i am planning to sleep for an hour or so after lunch. While going back to my room i stepped in to one of my friend Mansingh(Nitin Agarwal)and there i saw a horrible seen where by Mansingh and one other friend Jallad(Amit Kumar) are discussing that they have already got a book issued from library for tomorrow

Washington Accord

Washington Accord is an international agreement amongst prominent nations of the World, with the charter of promoting mobility and quality assurance of engineers across international boundaries. The charter requires that nations set up suitable accreditation standards, which would ensure a minimum quality of attainment for their engineering graduates.  Graduates of accredited programs in any of the signatory countries are recognized by the other signatory countries as having met the academic requirements for entry to the practice of engineering. Recognition of accredited programs takes effect only from the date of admission of the country to signatory status. In a major achievement, recently India becomes permanent Signatory to Washington Accord . The Signatory status will substantially increase global employment opportunities for technical & engineering graduates The Washington Accord was signed by the National Board of Accreditation, India, an accrediting body with the mandate

Mars Orbitor

Mars Orbiter Mission informally called Mangalyaan is India's first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. The Mission is primarily technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft. The mars orbiter was launched into earth orbit on 5th November,2013 by ISRO and is expected to enter Orbit around Mars on 24th Sept , 2014 .It is India's first interplanetary mission and, if successful, ISRO would become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and European Space Agency. One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. Following are the major objectives of the mission: A. Technological Objectives: Design and realisation of a Mars orbiter with a capabi

Highlights of Results of Civil Service Examination, 2013

The final results of Civil Services Examination, 2013 has been declared today, the 12th June, 2014. The following arethe important highlights of the results:  The Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2013 was conducted on 26th May, 2013. A total number of 7,76,565 candidates applied for this examination, out of which 3,23,949 candidates actually appeared and 14959 candidates were declared qualified for appearance in the Written (Main) Examination. Written exam was held in December, 2013 and based on their performance, 3003 candidates were shortlisted for the Personality Test which was conducted in April-June, 2014.  Finally, 1122 candidates ( 861 males and 261 females ) including 30 are Physically Handicapped candidates ( 15orthopedically challenged; 07 visually impaired and 08 hearing impaired ) have been recommended for appointment to the IAS, IFS, IPS and otherCentral Services against 1228 reported vacancies. Gau

Clean Technology Fund

The Clean Technology Fund (CTF),One of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) ,provides middle income countries with highly concessional resources to explore options to scale up the demonstration, deployment, and transfer of low carbon technologies in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable transport.World Bank is trustee of this fund. Each CTF investment plan is tailored by the country to be integrated into national development objectives and to serve as a programmatic organizing framework for the activities of actors across institutions, stakeholder groups, and sectors. More than 100 projects have emerged from these plans. They are expected to have a major impact on reducing CO2 emissions and on strengthening the viability and availability of clean technologies nationally, regionally, and globally. CTF concessional financing focuses on projects in following areas: Renewable energy: concentrating solar power, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, wind, small hydro  Susta

SLR (L1A1 Self Loading Rifle)

The L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle, also known as the SLR, by the Canadian Army designation C1 or in the USA as the "inch pattern" FAL,is a British Commonwealth derivative of the Belgian FN FAL battle rifle. It is Gas operated , tilting breechblock ,semiautomatic battle rifle with muzzle velocity of 823m/s and effective range of 800m. It uses 7.62*51 mm NATO cartridges. Specification :  Calibre 7.62mm Weight with magazine empty 4.337 kg Weight with magazine loaded - Length Over all 1143 mm Barrel length 554.4 mm Magazine Capacity 20/30 rounds Ammunition used 7.62*51mm NATO Rate of Fire 675-750 rounds/min Muzzle Velocity 823 m/sec. Sights Aperture rear sight,post front sight Range 800 mts

An overview of Banking Terms

Repo Rate Repo rate (repurchase rate) is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from the Central Bank(RBI). Reduction in the repo rate help banks to get money at a cheaper rate and thereby increasing liquidity in market. When the repo rate increases, borrowing from the Central Bank(RBI) becomes more expensive. Repo rate is used by monetary authorities to control inflation. Reverse Repo Rate Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which the Central Bank(RBI) borrows money from banks.Central Bank(RBI) uses this tool when it feels there is too much money floating in the banking system. Increase in reverse repo rate results in decreasing liquidity ad banks are attracted to invest into the Central Bank(RBI). CRR Rate Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with the Central Bank(RBI). If the Central Bank(RBI) decides to increase the percent of this, the available amount with the banks comes down.Central Bank(RBI) increase CRR rate to drain out the exce


RIMPAC, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, is the world's largest international maritime warfare exercise. RIMPAC is held biennially during June and July of even-numbered years from Honolulu, Hawaii. RIMPAC 2014 will be the 24th exercise in the series and will take place this year during the month of july-august.For the first time Norway will actively participate in the exercise. This year China also will participate for the first time in the Rim of the Pacific naval exercise marking the first time China will participation in a large-scale United States-led naval drill. 23 countries will participate in this year's RIMPAC: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Tonga, the United Kingdom, and the United States. INS Sahyadri will participate this year representing India in the largest multilateral exercises in the world

Financial Stability and Development Council

The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) had been constituted vide GOI notification dated 30th December, 2010 with following objectives. • Financial stability • Financial sector development • Inter-regulatory coordination • Financial literacy • Financial inclusion • Macro prudential supervision of the economy including the functioning of large financial conglomerates. • Coordinating India’s international interface with financial sector bodies such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and Financial Stability Board (FSB). The Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister and its members are Governor, Reserve Bank of India; Finance Secretary and/or Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs; Secretary, Department of Financial Services; Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance; Chairman, Securities and Exchange Board of India; Chairman, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority and Chairman, Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority. Re

National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC)

National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC) was set up in 2001 as a non profit company under Ministry of Tribal Affairs  for the economic empowerment of persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes families living below Double the Poverty Line with following objectives. i.) Identification of economic activities of importance to the Scheduled Tribes so as to generate employment and raise their level of income. ii.) Up-gradation of skills and processes used by the Scheduled Tribes through providing both institutional and on the job training. iii.) To make the existing State/U.T Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporations who are nominated as the State Channelizing Agencies (SCAs) for availing assistance from NSTFDC and other developmental agencies engaged in the economic development of Scheduled Tribes more effective. iv.) To assist SCAs in project formulation implementation of NSTFDC assisted Schemes and in imparting necessary training to their

Importance of Micro Irrigation

With the growing concern for conservation of water resources , the need of smart irrigation felt by people. In this direction concept of Micro Irrigation also known as Drip Irrigation or trickle irrigation or localized irrigation have gained importance recently. Micro Irrigation is an targeted irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer using controlled delivery methods by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of  individual plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of  tubes, pipes, valves and emission devices. Following are some advantages of using Micro-Irrigation : Minimized loss of fertilizers. Better water Utilization, minimizing water cost. Decreased labor cost Decreased power consumption Lesser soil erosion Even uneven fields can be efficiently irrigated Lesser weed growth

Thorium Based Reactors

Thorium plays a pivotal role in Indian Nuclear power programme. Right from the inception of Indian nuclear power programme, work has been carried out on various aspects of thorium utilisation-mining and extraction of thorium, fuel fabrication, irradiation in reactors, reprocessing and refabrication. In addition, studies have been carried out regarding use of thorium in different types of reactors. Details of Research Programme: (i) Thorium fuel fabrication through powder pellet route has been well established. Few tons of fuel have been made for CIRUS and Dhruva, Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and for blanket assemblies for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Few pins have been fabricated using mixed oxides of (Th-Pu) for irradiation in research reactors. (ii) Thoria bundles are used in the initial cores of PHWR. The irradiation experience of thoria fuel in the research reactors CIRUS and Dhruva, PHWR and test irradiations are satisfactory. (iii) The thoria pins of CIRUS have bee

क्योंकि - By Dharmveer Bharti

...... क्योंकि सपना है अभी भी - इसलिए तलवार टूटे, अश्व घायल कोहरे डूबी दिशायें, कौन दुश्मन, कौन अपने लोग, सब कुछ धुंध-धूमिल, किन्तु कायम युद्ध का संकल्प है अपना अभी भी ...... क्योंकि है सपना अभी भी! तोड़ कर अपने चतुर्दिक का छलावा जबकि घर छोड़ा, गली छोड़ी, नगर छोड़ा, कुछ नहीं था पास बस इसके अलावा, विदा बेला, यही सपना भाल पर तुमने तिलक की तरह आँका था (एक युग के बाद अब तुमको कहां याद होगा) किन्तु मुझको तो इसी के लिए जीना और लड़ना है धधकती आग में तपना अभी भी ...... क्योंकि सपना है अभी भी! तुम नहीं हो, मैं अकेला हूँ मगर यह तुम्ही हो जो टूटती तलवार की झंकार में या भीड़ की जयकार में या मौत के सुनसान हाहाकार में फिर गूंज जाती हो और मुझको ढाल छूटे, कवच टूटे हुए मुझको फिर याद आता है कि सब कुछ खो गया है - दिशाएँ, पहचान, कुंडल-कवच लेकिन शेष हूँ मैं, युद्धरत् मैं, तुम्हारा मैं तुम्हारा अपना अभी भी इसलिए, तलवार टूटी, अश्व घायल, कोहरे डूबी दिशाएँ, कौन दुश्मन, कौन अपने लोग, सब कुछ धूंध-धुमिल किन्तु कायम युद्ध का संकल्प है अपना अभी भी ......