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Land Revenue System in British India

Land Revenue system in British can be divided into following three major categories :

Zamindari System

Zamindari System also known as Permanent Settlement System.was introduced  in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Varanasi.by Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act.

In this system ownership rights of land was totally with Zamindars and Zamindars was given right to collect rent from peasants who work on that land.The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11 of the share belongs to Zamindars and 10/11 of the share belongs to East India Company.

Ryotwari System

Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 in areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India.

In this System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants and British Government used to collect taxes directly from the peasants.The revenue rates of Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigated land.

Mahalwari System

Mahalwari system was introduced in 1833 during the period of Warren Hastings in the areas of Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India.

The Mahalwari system included provisions of both the Zamindari System and Ryotwari System.
In this system, the land was divided into Mahals and each Mahal comprises one or more villages.
Ownership rights were vested with the peasants.The villages committee was held responsible for collection of the taxes while individual responsibility was also there to pay tax.

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