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National Investigation Agency (NIA)

The National Investigation Agency has been created in pursuance of the enactment of the NIA Act, 2008, and it is mandated, at the national level, to investigate and prosecute offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign States and offences under Acts enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations and other international organizations and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks as need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised

From the pattern of recent terrorist attacks in different parts of the country, it is clear that these attacks are planned centrally and executed in a very coordinated manner. On the other hand, investigations and trials of these cases in different States where such terrorist attacks/incidents take place tend to be state-centric. This is taken advantage of by the terrorist attack planners/handlers inimical to the country. To counter such designs, it becomes necessary that such investigations and prosecutions, as well as tracking of terrorists and fugitives from across the country, are also centrally coordinated, which would deny any advantage to terrorists.

Vision : The National Investigation Agency aims to be a thoroughly professional investigative agency matching the best international standards. The NIA aims to set the standards of excellence in counter terrorism and other national security related investigations at the national level by developing into a highly trained, partnership oriented workforce. NIA aims at creating deterrence for existing and potential terrorist groups/individuals. It aims to develop as a storehouse of all terrorist related information.

As per the National Investigation Agency (Manner of Constitution) Rules, 2008, NIA is to provide assistance to, and seek assistance from other intelligence and investigation agencies of the Central Government and State Governments.

Various Special Courts have been notified by the Central Government of India for trial of the cases registered at various police stations of NIA under Section 11 and 22 of the NIA Act 2008. Any question as to the jurisdiction of these courts is decided by the Central Government. These are presided over by a judge appointed by the Central Government on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the High Court with jurisdiction in that region. Supreme Court of India has also been empowered to transfer the cases from one special court to any other special court within or outside the state if the same is in the interest of justice in light of the prevailing circumstances in any particular state. They are empowered with all powers of the court of sessions under Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 for trial of any offense.

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