Skip to main content

Pelindaba Treaty


On November 24, 1961, as a consequence of the first French nuclear test in the dessert of Western Sahara, in the territory of today’s Algeria, the General Assembly appealed the United Nations Member States to stop these tests carried out in the densely populated territories of North Africa. Three years after, the African Heads of State and Government gathered at the Summit Conference of the African Unity (OAU) solemnly declared by means of an international treaty that they were ready to achieve a treaty prohibiting the production and the absolute control over nuclear weapons in their region. 

This proposal had not made any progress till the Cold War was over.It was since 1991 that South Africa, the African continent’s only country that had developed technological capacity for making nuclear weapons, became an integrant of the NPT, when real prospects for establishing a nuclear weapon free zone in Africa opened. The African Treaty bears the name of Pelindaba in honor of the South African nuclear plant that developed an important number of nuclear warheads and were dismantled. The fact that South Africa took such a decision of political character allowed the Pelindaba Treaty to have an end that had been expected for so many decades.

The African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zonein Africa. The treaty was signed in 1996 and came into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009.

The Treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession, control or stationing of nuclear explosive devices in the territory of parties to the Treaty and the dumping of radioactive wastes in the African zone by Treaty parties. The Treaty also prohibits any attack against nuclear installations in the zone by Treaty parties and requires them to maintain the highest standards of physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment, which are to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. The Treaty requires all parties to apply full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities. 

A mechanism to verify compliance, including the establishment of the African Commission on Nuclear Energy, has been established by the Treaty. Its office will be in South Africa. The Treaty affirms the right of each party to decide for itself whether to allow visits by foreign ships and aircraft to its ports and airfields, explicitly upholds the freedom of navigation on the high seas and does not affect rights to passage through territorial waters guaranteed by international law.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

कर्ण और कृष्ण का संवाद - रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर'

Following is excerpt from poem Rashmirathi written by Ram dhari singh dinkar. Karna reply to Krishna when he told story of his birth and ask him to join pandava side. सुन-सुन कर कर्ण अधीर हुआ, क्षण एक तनिक गंभीर हुआ,  फिर कहा "बड़ी यह माया है, जो कुछ आपने बताया है  दिनमणि से सुनकर वही कथा मैं भोग चुका हूँ ग्लानि व्यथा  मैं ध्यान जन्म का धरता हूँ, उन्मन यह सोचा करता हूँ,  कैसी होगी वह माँ कराल, निज तन से जो शिशु को निकाल  धाराओं में धर आती है, अथवा जीवित दफनाती है?  सेवती मास दस तक जिसको, पालती उदर में रख जिसको,  जीवन का अंश खिलाती है, अन्तर का रुधिर पिलाती है  आती फिर उसको फ़ेंक कहीं, नागिन होगी वह नारि नहीं  हे कृष्ण आप चुप ही रहिये, इस पर न अधिक कुछ भी कहिये  सुनना न चाहते तनिक श्रवण, जिस माँ ने मेरा किया जनन  वह नहीं नारि कुल्पाली थी, सर्पिणी परम विकराली थी  पत्थर समान उसका हिय था, सुत से समाज बढ़ कर प्रिय था  गोदी में आग लगा कर के, मेरा कुल-वंश छिपा कर के  दुश्मन का उसने काम किया, माताओं को बदनाम किया  माँ का पय भी न पीया मैंने, उलटे अभिशाप लिया मैंने  वह तो यशस्विनी बनी रह

एक पुलिसवाले की व्यथा

लोग अक्सर कहते हैं कि पुलिस सही तरीके से क्राइम कंट्रोल नहीं करती है लेकिन पुलिस करे तो करे क्या। उग्र भीड़ को क्राइम कंट्रोल करने पर आधारित एक लघु कथा। उन्मादी भीड़ हाथों में नंगी तलवारें, लाठी, डंडे लिए पागलों की तरह पुलिस वालों को पत्थर मार मार कर खदेड़ रही थी। उसकी पुलिस भीड़ से अपना असलाह और खुद को बचाते हुए पीछे हट रही थी। थानेदार का सर बुरी तरह फूट गया दो सिपाही उसे सँभालते हुए पीछे हट रहे थे बड़े अफसर, एस डी ऍम, सब मौके से गायब थे। ऑर्रडर देने वाला कोई दूर दूर तक नहीं था। भीड़ हावी होती जा रही थी। सब को कहीं न कही चोट लगी थी।भीड़ को लाठी डंडो से काबू करने के हालात तो बिलकुल भी नहीं थे। सबकी जान पर बनी हुई थी परंतु हाथ में लोड राइफल होते हुए भी जवान गोली चलाने से बच रहे थे, कैसी कायर स्तिथि थी। अचानक हवलदार बुधना को भीड़ ने पकड़ लिया और एक आदमी ने बुधना के सर पर कैरोसिन की गैलन उंडेल दी और दूसरे ने माचिस निकाली ही थी की धाँय की आवाज हुई और माचिस वाला जमीं पर लुढकने लगा।दूसरी आवाज में तेल के गैलन वाला जमीं पर कला बाजी खा रहा था । भीड़ जहां थी वहीँ थम गयी और उलटे पावँ भागने लगी लेकिन......अ

Scheme for creation of National Optical Fiber Network for Broadband connectivity of Panchayats

The Union Cabinet recently approved a scheme for creation of a National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) for providing Broadband connectivity to Panchayats. The objective of the scheme is to extend the existing optical fiber network which is available up to district / block HQ’s level to the Gram Panchayat level initially by utilizing the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF). The cost of this initial phase of the NOFN scheme is likely to be about Rs.20,000 crore. A similar amount of investment is likely to be made by the private sector complementing the NOFN infrastructure while providing services to individual users. In economic terms, the benefits from the scheme are expected through additional employment, e-education, e-health, e-agriculture etc. and reduction in migration of rural population to urban areas. As per a study conducted by the World Bank, with every 10% increase in broadband penetration, there is an increase in GDP growth by 1.4%. NOFN will also facilitate implemen

नेताजी

" जो कुछ अच्छा हुआ , वह हमने किया , जो कुछ बुरा हुआ , वह किया अधिकारियों ने , यह सीधी बात नहीं समझती जनता , ख़ुद भी होती है परेशान , हमें भी करती है परेशान. कुछ मत देखो , कुछ मत सुनो , कुछ मत कहो , बस हमें वोट देते रहो "

Arnesh Kumar Judgement regarding arrest

Supreme Court on 2nd July ,2014 in Arnesh kumar vs State of Bihar(CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 1277 OF 2014) gave following judgement regarding arrest in cases having punishment upto 7 years . In order to ensure that police officers do not arrest accused unnecessarily and Magistrate do not authorise detention casually and mechanically. In order to ensure court gave the following directions: (1) All the State Governments to instruct its police officers not to automatically arrest when a case under Section 498-A of the IPC is registered but to satisfy themselves about the necessity for arrest under the parameters laid down above flowing from Section 41, Cr.PC; (2) All police officers be provided with a check list containing specified sub-clauses under Section 41(1)(b)(ii);  (3) The police officer shall forward the check list duly filed and furnish the reasons and materials which necessitated the arrest, while forwarding/producing the accused before the Magistrate for further detention;